A Comprehensive Guide to Suboxone Use & Pregnancy
In addition, opioid use during pregnancy poses significant health risks to the mother and her unborn child. Among these, the threat of delayed fetal growth, still or premature birth, congenital disabilities, and maternal death are particularly concerning. Thus, appropriate and informed treatment for OUD is crucial.
Suboxone is a proven and safe treatment for opioid use disorder, with users reporting up to a 50% decrease in cravings. Below, we break down everything you need to know about Suboxone and pregnancy. But please consult a licensed physician before taking any medication.
What is Suboxone for?
Buprenorphine is a partial agonist of opioid receptors. It reduces opioid cravings by binding to and stimulating these receptors in the brain.
Given that it only partially activates opioid receptors, buprenorphine is safer than other opiates. However, users can still misuse buprenorphine by injecting it. This is where naloxone — the other ingredient in Suboxone — comes in.
Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that binds strongly to opioid receptors. It has limited oral bioavailability, meaning it can only enter the bloodstream when injected. In other words, if someone injects Suboxone, naloxone will prevent buprenorphine from binding to opioid receptors. This will precipitate an immediate withdrawal response deterring the user from injecting Suboxone.
Is It Safe to Take Suboxone While Pregnant?
When discussing the safety of Suboxone during pregnancy, it is crucial to look at its two ingredients — buprenorphine and naloxone — individually.
Studies show buprenorphine is safe to take during pregnancy. While there are some risks, which we discuss below, these are minimal compared to other medications (such as methadone). On top of that, its benefits — such as the lower risk of maternal and fetal complications — far outweigh the risks.
Recent data suggests naloxone, too, is safe for pregnant women. A large 2016 cohort study evaluating 640 pregnant women taking medications for OUD found naloxone to have a similar risk profile to other drugs. In addition, naloxone offered some significant benefits, including preventing buprenorphine misuse and decreasing the risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).
On top of that, studies show Suboxone carries a lower risk of side effects than other opioids. For instance, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), using opioid drugs during pregnancy can cause birth defects, such as glaucoma, hydrocephalus, and congenital heart defects. This risk is lower in pregnant women using Suboxone.
Given the overwhelming evidence, a 2020 update American Society for Addiction Medicine recommends Suboxone for OUD in pregnancy, despite the lack of FDA recommendation.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Babies born to mothers who use opioids during pregnancy are at an increased risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Recent data shows that up to 6 of 1000 such newborns may suffer from neonatal abstinence syndrome. This risk is much lower in mothers using buprenorphine.
Pregnant women who take drugs such as heroin, oxycodone, codeine, or methadone, can pass them on to their unborn child. Over time the baby becomes dependent on the drug. Thus, when the child is born and no longer receives the drug, it can cause withdrawal.
We can separate NAS symptoms into physical and behavioral:
Fortunately, most cases of NAS are mild and resolve with time. On occasion, severe symptoms may develop with babies needing medicines such as morphine or methadone. These drugs help treat withdrawal symptoms and enable newborns to eat, relax, and sleep.
Suboxone and Breastfeeding
Studies on Suboxones’ active ingredients suggest that it is safe for use while breastfeeding.
Buprenorphine appears in low levels in breastmilk, with studies reporting low drug concentrations in the blood and urine of breastfed infants. Naloxone, on the other hand, is not orally bioavailable. This means minimal quantities, if any, enter the bloodstream when users orally take the drug. In other words, naloxone is unlikely to affect a breastfed infant.
Data on the safety of Suboxone in breastfeeding mothers is limited. Thus, always consult your prescribing physician about taking Suboxone while pregnant and breastfeeding.
Suboxone Side Effects in Pregnant Women
Like other prescription drugs, Suboxone is not without side effects. These include:
Alternatives To Suboxone for Pregnant Women
Medication-assisted treatment options for OUD in pregnancy are not limited to Suboxone. Alternatives include:
Methadone is a synthetic opioid. It helps reduce cravings for opioids by binding to and occupying opioid receptors, much like buprenorphine. Before the FDA approved buprenorphine to treat OUD, methadone was the primary therapy for OUD in pregnant individuals.
Doctors no longer recommend methadone for two reasons. First, given its potent opioid activity, methadone has a greater risk of side effects than buprenorphine.
Second, methadone is also harder to get because doctors cannot prescribe it the same way as other medications. Those who need it can only receive a single dose at a time from a federally regulated facility. Virtual care providers (such as Confidant), too, can not prescribe methadone. This can be inconvenient for many, especially pregnant women.
At present, doctors only prefer methadone over other replacement drugs when treating chronic, heavy users of opioids.
Subutex contains only buprenorphine. As discussed, buprenorphine is a safe and effective treatment for OUD in pregnancy. Thus, it is a reasonable alternative for those that do not want to take Suboxone. With that said, receiving a prescription of Subutex is always at the discretion of your medical provider.
Tips in Dealing with Suboxone Use & Pregnancy
Many people who take Suboxone or other medications for OUD can benefit from combining them with other treatments, such as online therapy and recovery coaches. This is because while Suboxone helps reduce cravings for opioids, it does little to combat the mental and emotional impact of the treatment.
Online therapy enables pregnant women to meet — from the comfort of their home — a licensed professional regularly and address recovery's emotional, mental, and spiritual aspects. This is critical to long-lasting rehabilitation.
Recovery coaches can be invaluable to pregnant women with OUD for two reasons. First, they serve as accountability partners ensuring patients continue to do what's necessary for the best results. For this reason, unsurprisingly, research shows recovery coaches reduce the incidence of relapses.
Second, recovery coaches are often individuals with personal substance use disorder experience. Thus, they can leverage their expertise to provide better solutions to the barriers impacting pregnant women.
Consult Online with Confidant’s Online Suboxone Doctors
With the growing opioid use crisis, expecting mothers are at an increased risk of OUD. This can potentially lead to severe complications.
Medication-assisted treatments — such as Suboxone— are a safe treatment option that can help expecting mothers curb their craving for opioids and thus protect themselves and their unborn child.
To learn more about Suboxone and whether it is the right fit for you, reach out to our Confidant’s online doctors today.